2010年7月26日星期一

大型強子對撞機的科學家們想要有一座更大的機器:可直線發射質子

大型強子對撞機的科學家們想要有一座更大的機器:可直線發射質子
Large Hadron Collider scientists want a BIGGER machine that fires s in a straight line

By Daily Mail Reporter
Last updated at 1:56 PM on 26th July 2010

It cost £7 billion to build and has been fraught with problems since it was first switched on.
它花費七十億英鎊建造,並已存在一些問題,自它第一次開機。
But now scientists behind the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Switzerland want to build an even bigger machine, it will be announced today.
但現在在瑞士大型強子對撞機(LHC)背後的科學家,要建造一部更大的機器,它將於今天公佈。
Instead of whirling atoms in giant rings like at Cern, scientists now want a next-generation machine that will fire them in a straight line.
代替在巨大的環中旋轉的原子像在CERN一樣,科學家們現在想要一部下一代的機器,將以一條直線發射它們。
Scientists from CERN will reach out to China, India and Russia to help fund the next £8.5 billion step of the project at a conference in Paris today.
來自歐洲核子研究中心的科學家將深入到中國、印度和俄羅斯,去幫助金援今天在巴黎的一次會議的下一步八十五億英鎊項目 。
The new machine would be a successor to the LHC which was launched with great fanfare in September 2008, but days later was sidetracked by overheating that set off a chain of problems. 新機器將是一項的LHC繼承,它在2008年9月大張旗鼓地推出,但幾天之後因過熱引發連串的問題而擱置一段時間。

The LHC in its tunnel at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland. Now scientists want to build an even bigger machine
大型強子對撞機在瑞士日內瓦附近的CERN的隧道中,現在科學家希望建立一座更大的機器

CERN had to undertake a £26 million programme of repairs and improvements before restarting the machine last November. Since then the collider has reported a series of successes.

In March it saw the first collisions of two proton beams.

Plans for the next step, a 31-mile tunnel called the International Linear Collider, have long been under discussion and scientists now need to find funding, particle physicist Guy Wormser said. They hope the machine could be turned on in 2020 or 2025.

With the LHC 'we made a machine which allowed us to make a big leap in understanding, a sort of enlightener, and now we study and detail things and that's the linear collider', he said. 'It's the future of our discipline.'
Instead of crashing protons together, the new international collider will accelerate electrons and positrons, their antimatter equivalent, he said.
Depending on who wants to host it - and how much they are willing to pay - the ILC could potentially be built anywhere in the world.
The experiments of both machines are more about shaping our understanding of how the universe was created than immediate improvements to technology in our daily lives.
Scientists are attempting to simulate the moments after the Big Bang nearly 14 billion years ago, which they believe was the creation of the universe.
In March, the LHC produced a tiny bang, the most potent force on the tiny atomic level that humans have ever created.
Two beams of protons were sent hurtling in opposite directions toward each other in a 17-mile tunnel below the Swiss-French border - the coldest place in the universe at slightly above absolute zero.

CERN used powerful superconducting magnets to force the two beams to cross; two of the protons collided, producing seven trillion electron volts.

The latest results of those experiments will be presented at the International Conference on High Energy Physics, which is bringing 1,000 physicists to Paris this week.

Today Mr Wormser and other leading scientists would speak about their search for the Higgs boson, a hypothetical particle - often called the God particle - that scientists think gives mass to other particles and thus to other objects and creatures in the universe.

The colliders also may help scientists see dark matter, the strange stuff that makes up more of the universe than normal matter but has not been seen on Earth.
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1297666/Large-Hadron-Collider-scientists-want-BIGGER-machine-fires-protons-straight.html

科學家欲建更大型對撞設備 直線方式對粒子發射
2010年07月28日09:29
來源:《科技日報》

耗資100多億美元建成,卻從啟動之時就麻煩不斷,一切都注定了大型強子對撞機(LHC)不平凡的生命歷程。據英國《每日郵報》7月27日(北京時間)報道,來自歐洲核子中心等研究機構的“LHC幕后英雄”目前還有意建造更大型的直線對撞設備,作為大型強子對撞機的繼任者,以便為尋找“上帝粒子”和探尋暗物質等提供新的幫助。

  據英國《獨立報》同日報道,與此前歐洲核子中心所採用的在巨大環形隧道內旋轉加速原子的方式不同,科學家此次意圖以直線的方式對粒子進行發射,構建出新一代的對撞設備。歐洲核子中心粒子物理學家蓋·沃爾姆斯表示,該中心的研究人員將在巴黎召開的國際高能物理大會上,與來自中國、印度和俄羅斯等國的負責人員接洽,以獲得其對此項約為131億美元的科研新計劃的資助和支持。

  大型強子對撞機在2008年9月的開啟儀式可謂大張旗鼓,但不久后就因過熱而產生的一連串問題停機檢修。歐洲核子中心不得不花費2600萬英鎊對這台“巨無霸”進行修復和改進,直至去年11月才重新投入使用。此后大型強子對撞機獲得了部分科研進展:總能量達7萬億電子伏特的質子束流在今年3月30日對撞成功,意味著人類在探索宇宙的奧秘方面又邁進重要一步。

  沃爾姆斯稱,構建安裝在長達約50公裡隧道內的“國際直線對撞機”的科研計劃由來已久。新型對撞設備有望於2020年至2025年投入使用,其將對電子和正電子(電子的反粒子)等進行直線加速。歐洲核子中心總干事羅爾夫·霍爾表示,直線對撞機的建造地點目前尚未確定,願意出資100億美元的國家則有望將這一對撞設備“收入囊中”。此外,另一直線對撞機“緊湊型直線對撞機”的科研計劃也在籌備當中。

  沃爾姆斯表示,這些設備將能為科學家提供跨越式的啟迪,直線對撞機將成為粒子物理研究的未來所在。雖然幾種對撞機都不會即刻改善我們的日常生活,但卻能為人類對於宇宙形成的理解提供相當幫助。(張巍巍)

  總編輯圈點:

  作為公認的下一代用於高能粒子物理實驗的對撞機,國際直線對撞機將能讓科學家們一睹宇宙誕生后僅百億億分之一秒時所能見到的高能量景象。突破現有環形對撞機的極限,粒子經直線對撞機加速后攜帶著令人匪夷所思的能量發生碰撞,必定帶來許多預料之中和意想不到的發現。即使因財力和技術條件限制,中國無法成為東道國,也應積極參與這一繼ITER計劃之后又一大規模國際合作項目。重溫鄧小平參觀北京正負電子對撞機時那番評論,便不難理解其必要和重要。
http://scitech.people.com.cn/BIG5/12271769.html


大型強子對撞機的科學家'逼近'難以捉摸的上帝粒子

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