2011年6月18日星期六

CERN的LHC創造熱過太陽中心10萬倍的溫度

CERN的LHC創造熱過太陽中心10萬倍的溫度
CERN LHC Creates Temperatures 100,000 Times Hotter than the Center of the Sun
June 15, 2011
Translation by Autumnson Blog
Scientists using the world's largest atom smasher have created some of the hottest and densest matter ever achieved on Earth achieving a state of matter called a quark gluon plasma that existed in the milliseconds after the big bang 13.7 billion years ago.
科學家們採用世界上最大的原子加速器,已創造一些曾經在地球上達成的最熱和最密集的物質,達到一種物質的狀態被稱為夸克膠子等離子體,那存在於137億年前宇宙大爆炸後的毫秒中。
Physicists using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the European Centre for Nuclear Research, smashed heavy lead ions together at close to the speed of light, generating temperatures of more than 1.6 trillion degrees Celsius, 100,000 times hotter than the center of the Sun.
物理學家使用在歐洲核子研究中心的大型強子對撞機(LHC),以接近光速粉碎重鉛離子,產生超過1.6萬億攝氏度的溫度,10萬倍熱過太陽的中心。
In the process they recreated the densest material ever observed - only black holes are denser.
在過程中他們重新創造有史以來觀察到的最密集物質 - 只有黑洞是更密集。
The results were announced at the Quark Matter Conference recently held in Annecy, France - helping scientists to understand the evolution of the early universe recreating the conditions at the Big Bang.
結果被公佈於在法國阿納西召開的夸克物質會議 - 幫助科學家了解早期宇宙的演化,重建宇宙大爆炸時的條件。
In its infancy, just microseconds after the Big Bang, the universe was so hot and dense these quarks -the fundamental building blocks of matter- and gluons existed freely and unbound. The new results confirm that quark gluon plasma acts almost like a fluid, with minimal viscosity. The results are based on analysis of data collected during the last two weeks of the 2010 LHC run, when the atom smasher switched from colliding hydrogen protons to lead-ions.

The LHC heavy-ion program builds on experiments conducted more than a decade earlier at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator, which saw hints that a quark gluon plasma could be created and studied in the laboratory.

Then, in 1999, the US Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider established that a quark gluon plasma could be created on a miniscule scale.

"This state of matter doesn't exist anywhere naturally on Earth and is thought to only now occur during the collision of two neutron stars," reported Professor Geoffrey Taylor, from the University of Melbourne and part of the scientific team involved with the Large Hadron Collider's Atlas Detector, "This will help our understanding of the dynamics of the astrophysical processes taking place as a star collapses.

"Looking at how particle jets and subatomic particles like W and Z bosons are created in heavy lead ion collisions compared to lighter hydrogen proton collisions gives us an insight into the conditions that existed in a quark gluon plasma when the universe was just milliseconds old," Taylor added.

"These collisions are also generating antimatter, which will help us try to understand why we live in a stable universe of matter when equal amounts of matter and antimatter were created in the big bang," he concluded. "It takes our understanding of things that are happening in the cosmos one step further."

The Daily Galaxy via CERN and abc.net.au/news

http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2011/06/cern-lhc-creates-temperatures-1000-times-hotter-than-center-of-sun.html

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