2012年3月31日星期六

太陽黑子重現 泛電力公司為太陽風暴準備

Re-emerging Sunspot / Solar Watch March 29, 2012
太陽黑子重現/ 太陽能監察 2012年3月29日
2012-03-28


泛電力公司為太陽風暴準備
Transpower battens down for sun storms
PAUL GORMAN
Last updated 13:58 30/03/2012
Translation by Autumnson Blog
National Geographic國家地理
SUNSTORN: An artist's impression of a solar flare from the sun.
SUNSTORN:一個藝術家來自太陽耀斑的印象。

Transpower is brushing up plans to avoid South Island power cuts caused by massive storms on the Sun.
泛電力公司正在刷新計劃,以避免由太陽上的大規模風暴所造成的南島電力削減。
As the Sun heads towards its 11-year sunspot maximum - a result of its magnetic field switching between north and south - solar-storm activity is increasing.
因為太陽朝向其11年來的太陽黑子最大 - 其磁場南北之間切換的結果 - 太陽風暴活動正在增加。
Solar flares from sunspots eject radiation towards Earth in the form of X-rays and other charged particles, which can cause havoc with power and telecommunication systems and produce stunning auroral displays.
來自太陽黑子的太陽耀斑向地球彈出輻射,以X射線和其它帶電荷粒子的形式,可能會導致電力和電信系統的破壞,並產生驚懾的極光展示。
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the United States says solar activity will peak this year and could be the most intense for 50 years.
美國國家航空和航天局說,太陽活動將在今年達到高峰,及可能是50年來最激烈的。
National grid companies around the world are swinging into action to prepare for the worst.
在世界各地的國家電網公司都在切入行動作最壞的準備。
In New Zealand, power networks in South Canterbury, Otago and Southland are most likely to be in the firing line.
在新西蘭南坎特伯雷的電力網絡奧塔哥和南地,是最有可能在火線中。
The Spaceweather.com website says solar-storm activity in the past few days has been "quiet" to "unsettled", with a maximum of magnitude four.
太空天氣網站說,在過去幾天的太陽風暴活動已是從“安靜”至“不穩定”,最大為4級。
A huge sunspot, AR1429, which caused flares and storms this month, generated a massive flare two days ago but it has missed Earth.
一個巨大的太陽黑子AR1429,在本月初造成耀斑和風暴,兩天前產生一巨大的耀斑但它射不中地球。
However, the Sun and sunspot AR1429 will start turning back towards Earth next week, raising the potential for solar storms directed this way.
然而,太陽和黑子AR1429下週將開始轉​​回向著地球,提高太陽風暴潛質導向這路向。
Transpower spokeswoman Rebecca Wilson said geomagnetically induced currents could either directly affect electricity in power lines or divert from the Earth's surface into the lines, causing voltage fluctuations and less reliable power flow that could trip circuits.

Overseas, the resulting increase in heat had burnt out transformers.

"The impact of these currents is most pronounced in power systems with significant lengths of east-to-west transmission lines in the higher latitudes, greater than 45 degrees north or south. Historically, the major impact has been in Canada, the US and China," Wilson said.

"The area where these conditions are most closely met in New Zealand is the Otago and Southland regions between substations at Manapouri, Invercargill and Halfway Bush, just outside Dunedin.

"Minor impacts have also been seen in the Waitaki Valley, which has several hydro power stations and the terminal station of our HVDC [high-voltage direct current] link at Benmore."

A severe solar storm in November 2001, measured at eight on a scale from one to nine, set off alarms attached to South Island transformers and tripped circuits at Islington, near Christchurch, and Halfway Bush, but there was no loss of power.

This month, after a warning issued on March 9, the system was unaffected by a magnitude-seven solar storm, Wilson said.

Special "neutral earthing resistors" had been installed, and vulnerable transformers had been replaced with those able to tolerate higher levels of direct- current power.

Modelling had been carried out on possible effects of solar radiation, and in Invercargill an extra transformer had been installed, she said.

"When the DC monitoring devices indicate that transformers are under distress from [geomagnetic] currents, the procedure is to remove selected transmission lines from service."

http://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/news/6664044/Transpower-battens-down-for-sun-storms

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