2011年10月21日星期五

研究顯示一間“超級公司”牽全球經濟的細繩

5:18 禍 哉 、 那 些 以 虛 假 之 細 繩 牽 罪 孽 的 人 、 他 們 又 像 以 套 繩 拉 罪 惡
5:19 說 、 任 他 急 速 行 、 趕 快 成 就 他 的 作 為 、 使 我 們 看 看 . 任 以 色 列 聖 者 所 謀 劃 的 臨 近 成 就 、 使 我 們 知 道 。
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研究顯示一間“超級公司”牽全球經濟的細繩
Study Shows that One 'Super-Corporation' Pulls the Strings of Global Economy
Wednesday, October 19, 2011
Translation by Autumnson Blog

是否一間“超級公司”經營全球的經濟?研究宣稱它可能是可怕地不穩定
Does one 'super-corporation' run the global economy? Study claims it could be terrifyingly unstable
Research found that 147 companies formed a 'super entity' within group, controlling 40 per cent of its wealth
研究發現有147家公司在組內形成一個“超級實體”,控制了它財富的40%
Daily Mail
By Rob Waugh
Last updated at 12:00 PM on 20th October 2011

A University of Zurich study 'proves' that a small group of companies - mainly banks - wields huge power over the global economy.
一項蘇黎世大學的研究“證明”了,一個小的公司集團 - 主要是銀行 - 對全球的經濟行使巨大的力量。
The study is the first to look at all 43,060 transnational corporations and the web of ownership between them - and created a 'map' of 1,318 companies at the heart of the global economy.
該項研究是第一個去看全部的43,060間跨國公司,和它們之間的擁有權蛛網 - 及在全球經濟的心臟用1,318家公司創建一張“地圖”。
The study found that 147 companies formed a 'super entity' within this, controlling 40 per cent of its wealth. All own part or all of one another. Most are banks - the top 20 includes Barclays and Goldman Sachs. But the close connections mean that the network could be vulnerable to collapse.
研究發現,147家公司在這之內形成一個“超級實體”,控制了其財富的40%%,全部擁有部分或全部彼此之間。大部分都是銀行 - 排名前20位的包括巴克萊和高​​盛。但緊密的關係意味著網絡可能容易崩潰。
The 1,318 transnational corporations that form the core of the globalised economy - connections show partial ownership of one another, and the size of the circles corresponds to revenue. The companies 'own' through shares the majority of the 'real' economy
1,318間跨國公司形成全球化經濟的核心 - 連接顯示部分彼此間的擁有權,及圓圈大小相應收入,公司通過股份“擁有”“真實”經濟的大部份

'In effect, less than one per cent of the companies were able to control 40 per cent of the entire network,' says James Glattfelder, a complex systems theorist at the Swiss Federal Institute in Zurich, who co-wrote the research, to be published in the journal PLoS One.
“實際上,少過一%的公司能夠控制整個網絡的40%,”詹姆斯Glattfelder說,在蘇黎世瑞士聯邦研究所的一個複雜系統的理論家,他共同撰寫該研究,會發表在公共科學圖書館期刊。
Some of the assumptions underlying the study have come in for criticism - such as the idea that ownership equates to control. But the Swiss researchers have no axe to grind: they simply applied mathematical models usually used to model natural systems to the world economy, using data from Orbis 2007, a database listing 37 million companies and investors.
一些研究下面的假設已惹來批評 - 例如所有權等同控制的想法。但瑞士的研究人員並沒有私心:他們僅應用通常被用來模擬自然生態系統的數學模型對世界經濟,使用來自奧比斯數據庫2007年的數據,一個列出3,700萬家企業和投資者的數據庫。
Economists such as John Driffil of the University of London, a macroeconomics expert, told New Scientist that the value of its study wasn't to see who controlled the global economy, but the tight connections between the world's largest companies.

The financial collapse of 2008 showed that such tightly-knit networks can be unstable.
'If one company suffers distress,' Glattfelder says, 'This propagates.'

Protest against global capitalism outside St Paul's cathedral, London: But it seems unlikely that the 147 corporations at the heart of the world economy could wield real political power - they represent too many interests
在倫敦聖保羅大教堂以外的抗議針對全球資本主義:但它似乎不太可能在世界經濟心臟的147間公司可能行使真正的政治權力 - 他們代表太多的利益了

The research requires more analysis, but it could be used to look for the weaknesses in the network of global wealth, and prevent future financial disaster.

Looking at 'connectedness' also puts paid to conspiracy theories about the world's wealth - companies connect to highly connected companies for business reasons, rather than world domination.
The 'core' of 147 companies also represents too many interests to wield real political power - but it could act 'as one' to defend common interests. Sadly for market reformers, resisting change may be one such common interest.

http://www.activistpost.com/2011/10/study-shows-that-one-super-corporation.html

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