2010年5月27日星期四

2010年陣亡將士紀念日:公司來自永久戰爭的利潤

2010年陣亡將士紀念日:公司來自永久戰爭的利潤
Memorial Day 2010: Corporations Profit from Permanent War

May 25, 2010...19:55
by Bill Quigley
Published: May 24, 2010 – Information Clearing House

US law officially proclaims Memorial Day “as a day of prayer for permanent peace.”
美國法律正式宣告陣亡將士紀念日“作為一祈禱日尋求永久和平。”

However, the US is much closer to permanent war than permanent peace. Corporations are profiting from wars and lobbying politicians for more. The US, and the rest of the world, cannot afford the rising personal and financial costs of permanent war.
但是,美國更接近永久戰爭多於永久和平,公司從戰爭取得利潤和遊說政治家為得更多。美國和其餘的世界,無法負擔上升的長期戰爭的個人和財務成本。

戰爭一哥
Number One in War
No doubt, the USA is number one in war. This coming year the US will spend 708 billion dollars on war and another $125 billion for Veterans Affairs – over $830 billion. In a distant second place is China which spent about $84 billion on its military in 2008.
毫無疑問,美國在戰爭是一哥。即將來臨的這一年,美國將花費七千零八十億美元在戰爭上,和另一個 一千二百五十億美元在退伍軍人事務部 - 超過八千三百億美元。遙遠的第二位是中國,它在2008年花費約 840億美元在軍事上。
The US also leads the world in the sale of lethal weapons to others, selling about one of every three weapons worldwide. The USA’s major clients? South Korea, Israel and United Arab Emirates.
美國還領先世界在出售致命武器給其它國家,世界性銷售大約每三件武器中的一件。美國的主要客戶?韓國、以色列和阿拉伯聯合酋長國。
Our country has 5 percent of the world’s population but accounts for more than 40% of the military spending for the whole world.
我們的國有5%的世界人口,但佔整個世界超過 40%的軍費開支。

傷害
Harm

Our nation does not respect our soldiers by engaging in permanent war. War is grinding up our children. The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have cost over 5000 US lives and tens of thousands more lives of people in those countries. Over 20% of those in our military who served in these two wars, 320,000 people, have war-related traumatic brain injuries. Suicide rates are up by 26 percent among 18 to 29 year old male veterans in the latest Veterans Administration study. Mental health hospitalizations are now the leading cause of hospital admissions for the military, higher than injuries. On any given night, over 100,000 veterans are homeless and living on our nation’s streets.
我們的國家不尊重我們參與永久戰爭的士兵。戰爭折磨我們的孩子,在阿富汗和伊拉克的戰爭已取去 5,000條美國生命,和那些國家的人數以萬計的生命。那些在我們軍隊服役過這兩場戰爭的人超過 20%,32萬人民,有與戰爭相關的創傷性腦損傷;在最新的退伍軍人管理局研究,18至29歲之間的男性退伍士兵自殺率上升26%;精神健康住院是目前的首要原因軍人入院治療,高於受傷數字。在任何一個晚上,超過10萬多退伍軍人無家可歸和生活在我國的街上。

成本上升的戰爭
Rising Costs of War

Since 2001, the US has spent over $6 trillion (a trillion is a million millions) on war and preparations for war. That is about $20,000 for every woman, man and child in the US. Iraq and Afghanistan alone have cost the US taxpayer over a trillion dollars since 2001.
自2001年以來,美國已經花費6萬億美元在戰爭和準備戰爭上。這差不多相等於二萬元給每一個在美國的婦女、男子和兒童。自2001年以來,伊拉克和阿富汗已用去美國納稅人超過 1萬億美元。

未見停止
No End in Sight
Earlier this month, Marine General James Cartwright, the Vice-Chair of the military Joint Chiefs of Staff, told the Army Times that the US can expect continuing war “for as far as the eye can see.”

In the name of this perpetual war against terrorism the US still jails hundreds without trial in Guantanamo, holds hundreds more in prisons on bases and in secret detention world-wide, tries to avoid constitutional trials for anyone accused of terrorism, admits it is trying to assassinate an American citizen Muslim cleric in Yemen, and launches deadly drone strikes in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Yemen killing civilians and suspects whenever we decide.

誰從永久戰爭得益?
Who benefits from permanent war?

One support for permanent war is that there are corporations in the US which openly lobby for more and more money to be invested in war. Why? Because they profit enormously from government contracts.
長期戰爭的一種支持是有美國公司公開地遊說,用越來越多的資金投資於戰爭。為什麼?因為它們從政府合同獲利甚豐。
President Dwight Eisenhower, who believed in a strong military, warned the US about just this in his farewell address to the nation in 1961.

“In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes.”

戰爭是大生意
War is Big Business
War is very big business. People know that private companies are doing much more in war. In January 2010, the Congressional Research Service reported that there are at least 55,000 private armed security contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan, and maybe many more – as many as 70,000 in Afghanistan alone.
戰爭是非常大的業務,人們知道私人公司在戰爭做得更多。在2010年1月,美國國會研究服務報告,至少有55,000名私人武裝安全合約人員在伊拉克和阿富汗,也許還有更多 - 多達 70,000在阿富汗一處。
But much bigger money is available to defense contractors. In 2008 alone, the top ten defense contractors received nearly $150 billion in federal contracts. These corporations spent millions to lobby for billions more in federal funds and hired ex-military leaders and ex-officials to help them profit off war.
但更大的資金可用於國防承包商。僅在2008年,十大國防承包商收到接近1,500億美元的聯邦合約,這些公司花費數以百萬去遊說,為更多的十億美元的聯邦資金,並聘請前軍事領導人和前官員,去幫助他們從戰爭獲得利潤。
For example, look at the top three defense contractors, Lockheed Martin, Boeing and Northrop Grumman. They demonstrate why perpetual war is profitable and part of the reason it continues.
例如,看看三大國防承包商,洛克希德馬丁,波音和諾思羅普格魯曼公司。她們示範為何永遠的戰爭是能獲利和一部分的原因它繼續下去。

洛克希德馬丁
Lockheed Martin

Lockheed Martin is the largest military contractor in the world with 140,000 employees, taking in over $40 billion annually, over $35 billion of which comes from the US government. Lockheed Martin boasts that they have increased their dividend payments by more than 10 percent for the seventh consecutive year – perfectly in line with the increase in war spending by the US. Its chairman, Robert Stevens, received over $72 million in compensation over the past three years.
洛克希德馬丁公司是世界上最大的軍事承包商,有14萬僱員,收入每年超過 400億美元,其中超過 350億美元來自美國政府。洛克希德馬丁吹噓他們已增加他們的派息連續 第7年超過10% - 完美地配合美國戰爭開支的增加。其董事長羅伯特史蒂文斯,在過去 3年收取超過 7,200萬美元的賠償。
Lockheed’s board of directors includes a former Under Secretary of Defense, a former US Air Force Commander of the U.S. Strategic Command, a former Deputy Director of Homeland Security, and a former Supreme Allied Commander of Europe. These board members receive over $200,000 a year in compensation. Its political action committee gave over a million dollars a year to federal candidates in 2009, and is consistently one of the top spending PACs in the US. They appeal to all members of Congress because they strategically have operations in all fifty states. And, since 1998, Lockheed has spent over $125 million to lobby Congress.

諾思羅普格魯曼公司
Northrop Grumman

Northrop Grumman is a $33 billion company with 120,000 employees. In 2008, it received nearly $25 billion in federal contracts. Its chairman, Ronald Sugar, received over $54 million in compensation over the past three years.

Northrop’s Board includes a former Admiral of the Navy, a former 20 year member of Congress, a former chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a former commissioner of the Security and Exchange Commission and a former U.S. Naval officer. The members of its board of directors received over $200,000 each in 2009. Its Pac is listed as making over $700,000 in federal campaign donations in 2009. Since 1998, it has spent over $147 million lobbying Congress.

波音公司
Boeing
Boeing has 150,000 employees and took in over $23 billion in federal contracts in 2008. With revenues of $68 billion in 2009, its chair, James McNerney, was paid over $51 million over the past three years. Its board members are paid well over $200,000 a year. Boeing’s directors include a former U.S. Secretary of Commerce, a former White House chief of staff, a former vice chair of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, and a former U.S. Ambassador and U.S. Trade Representative. It hosts the 10th largest political action committee, giving away more than one million dollars to federal candidates in 2009. Since 1998, it has spent $125 million lobbying Congress.

時候去終止長期戰爭
Time to Terminate the Permanent War

These corporations take billions from the government and profit from our perpetual state of war. They recycle some of that money back into lobbying the same people who gave it to them, and hire ex-military and government officials to help smooth the process. Their leaders make tens of millions off this work.
這些公司從政府取去數以十億美元和從永恆的戰爭狀態的獲利。他們再循環一些錢回去遊說給錢它的相同人物,並聘請前軍方和政府官員協助撫順過程。他們的領導人從這項工作製造數以千萬元計。
The trillions of dollars that it costs to wage permanent war are taxing the US economy. Yet where are the voices in Congress, Democrat or Republican, that talk seriously of dramatically reducing our military spending? President Obama and the Democrats are effectively continuing the permanent war policies of the Bush years. It is past time for change.

Remember this Memorial Day that, while thousands have been laid in their graves and hundreds of thousands wounded, private military contractors are prospering and profiting as the business of war booms.

The US should not only remember its dead but work to reverse the profitable permanent war that promises to add more names to the dead and disabled in this country and around the world.

Bill is Legal Director at the Center for Constitutional Rights and a law professor at Loyola University New Orleans. Quigley77@gmail.com

Source: http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article25528.htm

http://nwoobserver.wordpress.com/2010/05/25/memorial-day-2010-corporations-profit-from-permanent-war/

美國阿靈頓公墓爆出大批錯葬醜聞
更新時間 2010年 7月 29日, 格林尼治標準時間22:49

錯葬事件令陣亡軍人家屬感到「情何以堪」

美國國會參議院的國土安全和政府事務委員會估計位於華盛頓的阿靈頓公墓中有6600個墓碑與埋葬者不符合。

此一數字遠超過美軍調查人員得出的221宗。

阿靈頓國家公墓專供埋葬陣亡美軍士兵、過世的退伍軍人以及對美國有功的平民。

責任歸屬

在委員會的聽證會上,該委員會主席克萊爾•麥克斯吉爾指責說,發生錯葬事件是因為歷任公墓管理主任「無能」。

美軍的調查報告則說,公墓管理單位兩個高層主管的關係欠佳是造成錯葬的主要原因。

在委員會作證的時候,在今年年初卸任的前任公墓管理主任梅茲勒爾對錯葬事件表示「真誠」道歉、願意承擔完全責任。

但是擔任主任19年的梅茲勒爾辯稱他對管理狀況也不滿意,但是「無權參與任何合約」。

他還表示,公墓缺乏資源,管理部門沒有電腦系統,所以無法建立有效的登記系統。

「內部鬥爭」

美國政府曾撥款800萬美元,為該公墓裝置電腦系統。但是許多埋葬紀錄至今依舊是寫在卡片上。

梅茲勒爾的副手舒爾曼·希金波薩姆在面對質詢的時候,則選擇美國憲法第五條所賦予的緘默權、拒絕回答可能會對自己不利的問題。

調查人員說,梅茲勒爾和希金波薩姆的關係惡劣,嚴重地影響了公墓的管理。

麥克斯吉爾指責說,問題與缺乏資源無關,「妥善紀錄墓位和埋葬者身份不是件複雜的工作」,並說到一個月之前才就問題道歉「實在難以接受」。

國家墓園

阿靈頓國家公墓位於華盛頓近郊,埋葬的大多是美軍陣亡軍人、退伍軍人以及對美國有功的人員。

前美國總統肯尼迪便埋葬在此一公墓。公墓埋葬了33萬人,其中11萬人(朝鮮戰爭、越戰的老兵、在海灣戰爭、伊拉克、阿富汗陣亡的美軍士兵)是過去19年當中埋葬的。

公墓的70個墓區,到現在只有3個完成了身份與墓碑核對的工作。

http://www.bbc.co.uk/zhongwen/trad/world/2010/07/100729_arlington_cemetery.shtml

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